Canada ratified the agreement in March and the USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020. Although NAFTA is officially dead, governments and businesses are still adapting to the new rules, especially the new labour rules. Coronavirus can also complicate implementation as manufacturers adapt to new guidelines in the midst of a global economic crisis. The agreement between the two countries eventually resulted in a largely decommissioning trade zone between them and eliminated most of the remaining tariffs, while tariffs were only a small part of the free trade agreement. In the 1980s, the average tariff on goods crossing the border was well below 1%. Instead, Canada wanted unfettered access to the U.S. economy. The Americans, on the other hand, wanted access to Canada`s energy and cultural industries. The exact impact of the agreement is difficult to measure. Trade between Canada and the United States, which had already increased, accelerated after the signing of the agreement.  While exports accounted for about 25% of Canada`s gross domestic product (GDP) over the entire 20th century, exports have accounted for about 40% of GDP since 1990. After the year 2000, they reached almost 50%.  The U.S.-Mexico-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) is a trade agreement between these parties.
The USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The USMCA is expected to have a very small impact on the economy.  An International Monetary Fund (IMF) discussion paper published at the end of March 2019 stated that the agreement would have a “negligible” impact on the general economy.   The IMF study predicted that the USMCA “would have a negative impact on trade in the automotive, textile and clothing sectors, while achieving modest welfare gains, mainly due to improved access to the goods market, with a negligible impact on real GDP.”  The IMF study found that the economic benefits of the USMCA would be greatly enhanced if Trump`s trade war ended (i.e., the United States repealed tariffs on steel imports and and that Canada and Mexico reduced retaliatory duties on imports from the United States)  The Mexican Ministry of Economy notes that the achievements of the T-MEC agreement include the maintenance of free trade for all original products; Introducing new disciplines for the trade in recycled products; Modernizing certification systems and verification procedures; facilitate and streamline customs and customs exchanges and transparency of administrative procedures; Establishing coordination obligations between agencies responding to border crossings; and the inclusion of elements relating to copyright, trademarks, geographic indications, patents, undisclosed data protection, commercial designs, trade secrets, the Internet service provider restriction system and enforcement rules. In addition, there is a provision that the agreement itself must be reviewed every six years by the three nations, with a 16-year forfeiture clause.